Episode 15 – how do mTORC2 and ChREBP-β keep the fat cycle going?

Show notes: Study 1: “Adipose tissue mTORC2 regulates ChREBP-driven de novo lipogenesis and hepatic glucose metabolism” (2013 Tang et al.) This study looked at the activity of mTORC2 in the adipose tissue of miceFloxed-KO mice missing Rictor, a key element in the mTORC2 complex, were used in this study In the liver, de novo lipogenesis (DNL) correlates with insulin resistance (IR) but in white adipose tissue (WAT) it correlated with insulin sensitivity (IS) The activity of Carbohydrate-response Element Binding Protein

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Episode 14 – Freezing your fat off

Show notes: Study è “Short-term cold acclimation improves insulin sensitivity in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus” (Hanssen et al. 2015) Brown adipose tissue (BAT) was ‘rediscovered’ in 2009 Cold exposure increases BAT & its activity BAT activity was determined by measured glucose uptake via 18FDG PET-CT Data suggests BAT activation correlates with decreased triglycerides in BAT tissue More glucose was taken up (on average) in skeletal muscle & BAT tissue post-cold adaptation Uncoupling potein-1 (UCP-1) expressing white adipose tissue

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Episode 13 – What happens to fructose-fed monkeys?

Short summary: In episode 13 Gabor and I review a 2011 study looking at the metabolic consequences of rhesus monkeys being fed a grain-based diet supplemented with 500mL of fructose loaded Kool-Aid a day over a year. Show notes: The study: Fructose-Fed Rhesus Monkeys: A Nonhuman Primate Model of Insulin Resistance, Metabolic Syndrome, and Type 2 Diabetes (Bremer et al. 2001) Gabor explains what is fructose, glucose and high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) Gabor explains the enzymatic means by which HFCS

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Episode 12 – Decoding Cholesterol with Dave Feldman

Short summary: I talk to engineer Dave Feldman about what his dietary self-experiments taught him cholesterol in human physiology. His “N = 1” experimentation is not only very interesting and rigorous but most importantly, it cannot be explained by current mainstream notions in lipidology. We also discuss the implications that this may have for cardiovascular disease. Show notes: Dave Feldman is known as the Christian Bale of nutrition for his extreme self-experiments where he ate 5,000 kcals per day, or

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Episode 11 – Obesity: a bird’s eye view

Short summary: In episode 11 Gabor selects 2 papers on the physiology of migrating birds that fatten up for their voyage and we discuss what this can tell us about human obesity. The first paper is from 2002 by Bairlein and is called “How to get fat: nutritional mechanisms of seasonal fat accumulation in migratory songbirds” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12008967. The second is called “Adipose energy stores, physical work, and the metabolic syndrome: lessons from hummingbirds” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16351726 and is by Hargrove et al.

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Episode 10 – Medical uses of ketogenic and low carb diets with Ellen Davis

Short summary: With guest Ellen Davis we discuss the many medical applications of ketogenic and low carb diets, all of which is explored in depth in her 3 books “Fighting Cancer with a Ketogenic Diet”, “The Ketogenic Diet for Type 1 Diabetes” and “Conquering Type 2 Diabetes with a Ketogenic Diet”. Show notes: • Ellen’s books “Fighting Cancer with a Ketogenic Diet”, “The Ketogenic Diet for Type 1 Diabetes” and “Conquering Type 2 Diabetes with a Ketogenic Diet” • Who

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Episode 9 – Amy Berger’s new book “The Alzheimer’s Antidote”, gluconeogenesis and exogenous ketones

Short summary: In her new book “The Alzheimer’s Antidote”, Amy Berger explains how improving one’s metabolism through a well-formulated low-carb high-fat diet is a worthwhile strategy to manage the disease. We then discuss how ‘excess protein’ is an overblown concern when it comes keeping adequately low blood sugar by not excessively stimulating gluconeogenesis. Lastly, we discuss the right and wrong reasons to sell and use exogenous ketones. Show notes: We first discuss Amy Berger’s background as a registered dietician, her

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Episode 8 – starch digestibility and limitations of the glycemic response

In episode 8 of the Break Nutrition show we discuss 2 papers which explore the glycemic, insulin and incretin responses and how the digestibility of starch as well as the apportioning of endogenous vs exogenous glucose comes into play. The paper from 2012 is “Slowly and rapidly digestible starchy foods can elicit a similar glycemic response because of differential tissue glucose uptake in healthy men” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22990033. The paper from 2015 is “Plasma glucose kinetics and response of insulin and GIP

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Episode 7 – How processed starches affect metabolic responses

The first paper discussed is from 1989 and is called “Insulin and glycemic responses in healthy humans to native starches processed in different ways: correlation with in vitro alpha-amylase hydrolysis” Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2667315 18 subjects eat 35g of starch that is either raw, gelled (boiled & cooled) or made into a paste (via mechanical extrusion). In vitro α-hydrolysis with α-amylase of differently processed starches correlate strongly (r2 = 0.95, p < 0.0001) with the glycemic and insulin responses of 18 human subjects

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Episode 6 – why bariatric surgery improves metabolic parameters quickly

Episode 5 of the Break Nutrition Show Gabor and I  had a discussion about the paper called “Mechanisms facilitating weight loss and resolution of type 2 diabetes following bariatric surgery”. Mechanisms facilitating weight loss and resolution of type 2 diabetes following bariatric surgery Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20133150 Bariatric surgery is more akin to metabolic surgery than a procedure to mechanically restricting food intake The 3 classical categories of bariatric surgery (1) restrictive (2) malabsorptive (3) hybrid of 1 & 2 Improvement of metabolic

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